Archive | September, 2019

187. Climate-Change: Worthy Research Projects for Support

13 Sep

Our US government is ignoring Climate-Change dangers. I am hoping that wealthy people and corporations will make up for this by supporting research in this area (and in other ways). Below, I have listed some worthy projects.  

Briefly, global warming is dangerous and can result in fires, floods, and starvation. It is caused by increased amounts of heat-trapping greenhouse-gases (mostly carbon dioxide and methane) in the atmosphere. Almost all solutions are directed to reducing these gases, which occur naturally, but are increased by human burning of fossil fuels (coal, gasoline, etc.) in power plants, cars, planes, and by other human activities.

Seehttps://climate.nasa.gov/solutions/adaptation-mitigation/

Here is a summary of basic solutions:  

1. Reduce the flow of greenhouse gases into the air, where they trap heat and cause global warming. Limit burning fossil fuels, like coal and gasoline, for power. It is vital to stop these gases from increasing. Small increases in average global temperature have a profound effect — just a two or three degree increase can cause colossal effects.

2. Enhance the absorption of greenhouse gases by oceans, forests, and soil so that they are removed from the atmosphere.

3. Remove the greenhouse gases from the atmosphere by the development of industrial processes.

4. Work on the efficiency and cost of alternate energy, such as wind and solar, so that fossil fuels are not needed.

Some specific solutions:

Improved batteries will enhance the use of wind and solar methods for production of electricity. If wind speeds drop and the sun isn’t shining then batteries can be used to store power for use under negative conditions. Good batteries will also promote the use of electric cars. There is considerable research in this area and much is supported by auto industries.

Planting trees and preserving forests are very helpful for absorbing carbon dioxide in the air, but other methods are still required.

Black carbon (soot) results from incomplete burning of fuels or wood. There is research that suggests it makes global warming worse, and solutions are being studied. Also studied are the effects of ozone in the air. Reseachers believe that reducing soot and ozone could be very effective in conjunction with other methods.

There is research on reflecting light from the sun to reduce heat, by pumping aerosols  into the stratosphere. Similarly, reflections of sunlight could be accomplished by making  the earth more reflective. Vegetation (trees, plants, etc) could be altered to make them  reflect more light. There are various other similar solutions that are being considered.

A University of California biogeochemist, Asmeret A. Berhe, has suggested that
alterations of soil could affect its carbon-trapping power. Many human activities have led to the degradation of soil so that its ability to help with climate change is affected. The solution would be to vary farming and forestry practices.
See: https://www.ucmerced.edu/content/asmeret-asefaw-berhe

It is argued by researchers that using “restorative ocean farming” could help with climate change and also provide safer and better seafood. Most current seafood farming methods are generally harmful to the oceans. Avoiding sea “pens” for fish, and using more natural ocean enhancement could be good for health and climate-change.
See TED, June 2019: Ayana Johnson and Megan Davis: “Could underwater farms help fight climate change?”

Joanne Chory (https://www.salk.edu/scientist/joanne-chory/) has been researching how improved plants could be helpful. Adaptable “supercharged plants” could be developed that absorb more carbon, deeper underground, and for many more years. The program is the Salk Institute’s “Harnessing Plants Initiative.”

It has been proposed, that climate-change could be attacked with a method that creates useful energy. Natural gas could be used to generate electricity in a way that takes carbon dioxide out of the air. (See TED April 2017, Tim Kruger)

“Chemical engineer Jennifer Wilcox previews some amazing technology to scrub carbon from the air, using chemical reactions that capture and reuse CO2 in much the same way trees do.” This TED talk (April 2018) provides an excellent summary of many efforts to develop massive reduction in atmospheric CO2. It should be noted that researchers generally consider that any one method dealing with climate-change will not be enough, and that a combination of several of the best methods is required.

Ted Halstead (TED talk April 2017) describes a plan that would break through various  barriers to climate-change solutions, and would appeal to businesses and Republicans. The “carbon dividends” plan involves a gradually rising carbon tax, and dividends given to the public. This plan was presented to Pres. Trump two weeks after his  inauguration. It was widely endorsed at that time, but apparently, after two years, it was not implemented.

 

 

186. Origin of Trump Traits

3 Sep

There have been many analyses of Donald Trump’s character. Most extensive is a book by Bandy LeeThe Dangerous Case of Donald Trump, 2017, which includes essays by 27 psychiatrists. All contributors give him a psychiatric diagnosis, for example, narcissistic, which means, briefly, excessively self-admiring. Almost every day, a commentator on a news program tries to explain some of his behaviors. Many have no good answer.

I am a psychologist and my orientation is towards behavioral science (and also neurophysiology). Such scientists use terminology based on observable actions and tend to reject words that are more indefinite. Behaviors (anything we say or do) are based on our original structures (DNA, etc.) and even more upon all aspects of our environment, including parenting, formal learning, social interactions, observations, etc. Everything we experience can lead to behavioral patterns.

In my essay below, I list certain apparent traits. Each trait represents a set of observable Trump behaviors that are well established.

Intelligence:  I have given many IQ tests and would estimate his current IQ at around 119, which is somewhat above average, but, for example, well below what is necessary for a Ph.D. (IQ of 130). It is a typical IQ for a college student and his mistakes in judgment reflect this. Here are the considerations: he has failed at most businesses, he rarely studies anything written, his actions are simplistic and the full implications of an issue are ignored. When criticized, he rarely presents arguments, but just makes personal attacks. He almost never lays out complex plans or goals. He has guarded his college grades with the threats of lawsuits. When asked a more complicated question, he usually diverts to something else.

Values Money and Power. I am sure he learned this from his parents and his wealthy friends. Also learned in this way is his self-centered orientation. 

Revenge. No matter what the criticism, he usually responds by calling the critic a name or by insulting in some other way. It is pretty certain that this was learned through experience. When he did not respond, there was more criticism from more people. His counterattacks were mostly rewarded. Early on, when he presented counter arguments, he found these to be ineffective. 

Extreme Confidence. This is clear: he ran for President, he is a confident speaker, he has made huge investments, etc. The origin of this confidence is his birth into a very rich family and the financial backup of his father, when alive. Because he was effective in creating an image of great wealth, the confident actions always worked out.

Lies and Mistakes. Literally thousands of lies (some are just mistakes) have been documented. Some are accounted for by memory problems (see below), some are based on limited intelligence,  and the rest are just plain lies to achieve an image or agenda. Intelligent people write down facts and keep this info handy for speeches. This behavior is reinforced by his supporters and is rarely effectively challenged.  

Memory Loss. This is likely the result of mild (but increasing) Alzheimer’s and is typical in older persons. At one time he asserted that he needed little sleep, and it is lack of good sleep that promotes Alzheimer’s. Many of his mistakes appear to be due to memory problems, but that is not definite.

Torture and Cruelty. Many of his actions could be considered cruel. His treatment of Puerto Rican citizens, and his treatment of southern border asylum seekers, are examples. Trump was raised in a rich family and his friends were mostly very rich. He never was exposed to the real hardships faced by many Americans. His focus is on winning, elections, voters, and financial supporters, and little else.

Racism. I have discussed this in previous blogs. What appear to be racist traits may just be actions to keep the votes of his racist people. He definitely supports racist people, but may not be personally a racist.

To summarize, Trump started out his adulthood with a large fortune provided by his father. This made him overconfident and separated (aloof) from ordinary working people. As a general rule, various antisocial behaviors like lying and cruelty are usually followed by some type of punishment But in Trump’s world, these are ignored and sometimes even reinforced. Currently, Trump is severely threatened by investigations, substantial criticism, and failing policies. So unfortunately, we can expect even more erratic behaviors.