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229. Poor Management Threatens Human Survival

29 Apr

The irony of our times is that good management of critical processes could have solved all of the worlds problems, and provided happiness for everyone, yes, every person on Earth. Here is a list of problems, presented briefly, that could have been solved with good management and using existing knowledge.

Climate-change. Much of this science was developed decades ago, but like children, few were willing to make changes with long-term benefits. There are numerous discussions of potemtial and current climate disasters.

Poverty. There are enough resources on Earth to provide food, shelter, clothing, and entertainment for everyone. We have poverty because national leaders become greedy in office, and hoard resources.

Covid-19. President Obama had a group working on pandemic solutions, which was abolished by the next president. Inexperience and lack of knowledge led to millions of deaths, worldwide. And suffering may continue for many more months or even years. Ultimately, we need science to provide a broader protection from many disease variations.

Expansionism. Leaders of several major countries have goals of expansion, the conquering of other nations by military force. In current times, we must add cyber and political agression. Weaker nations are vulnerable.

Beliefs. I have no problem with people who wish to practice religions. Much in this area is beneficial. But, unfortunately, differences in religion sometimes leads to major violence and many deaths in wars. Also, the beliefs of Qanon, Proud Boys, Neo-Nazis, KKK, and others are bizarre and dangerous.

Science. A part of every population does not trust science, in general, and ignores beneficial processes. Science can help with food production, medical advances, technical advances, and many of the problems listed in this blog. Genetically altered foods have proven to be safe and beneficial.

Voting. It is sad that many of those who could benefit most from good government, often are fooled into voting for leaders that will not help them.

Endless wars. The US and several other nations have tried to correct the governments of other countries. While these efforts are often done with good intensions, good results are often lacking, and sometimes matters are made much worse. A study of history could have helped.

Rich donors. Extremely rich people in a country often have a major influence on tmportant decisions. These decisions often benefit them, but are dangerous for the rest of the population.

Democracies. Most of us would never have predicted that the USA could move
towards a dictatorship. Yet, in 2020 we were very close to this. Traditionally, the US has provided a great example of good government. Poor management of the election process almost resulted in a permanent disaster.

Food resources. Proper management of the oceans is important for keeping them as a source for food. Management of land useage for food is also important. Ultimately, good sources of protein may be more effectively provided by industrial processes.

Summary. Our current world, which is crowded with human populations, must now be carefully managed to avoid extensive human suffering and deaths. Much of tradition is no longer effective in solving problems. We must think clearly and objectively in finding the best solutions. Most of the topics above, are extensevely covered in my blogs, and many other writers have good ideas that must be explored. Our serious world problems can be solved.

225. Thoughtless Human Nature May Cause Our Extinction.

22 Mar

Here are the critical areas:

Covid-19 and other similar viruses. These may be a never ending problem, because so many people throughout the world are not wearing masks, distancing, isolating, etc. Young people, older people, poorly educated people and others, simply are not following the rules and most go unpunished. It is human nature. Even our past president had huge rallies with unprotected people packed together, promoting numerous new infections. There is a powerful tendency for people to do what was always, previously acceptable.

It is possible that improved vaccines will ultimately keep us safe, but there will always be a large percentage of the population that will not accept them. Because the viruses evolve, it may never be possible to completely stop them. However, there are current efforts to rebuild an excellent CDC and WHO, and new support for science, which will help.

Climate change problems of increased floods, droughts, fires, and hurricanes are serious threats to our survival and are already killing thousands of people. Much of the resulting disaster is mass migrations, which will gradually increase as weather patterns change that affect food production. Our leaders and the people must all strive to replace the use of fossil fuels with green sources of electricity. It is the nature of the rich business owners to ignore these current and future problems because action will involve unwanted extra expense. It is usually profitable to keep doing things in the same way even if they are indirectly destructive.

People will hesitate to buy electric vehicles, lower home energy use, and to use solar panels. It is human nature to keep life simple and not made improvements when there is no incentive.

Massive migrations have already been mentioned, but deserve additional discussion. I see migrations from Syria and other unstable countries as responsible for much of the world’s problems, probably including BREXIT and some past US government policies. Generally it is the human nature of less-educated people to be fearful of immigrants; and the previous US admin promoted these fears.

It is a human nature to elect our leaders based on their speeches and emotions, rather than on the basis of intelligence and relevant experience. People that appear powerful, good looking, and likable are often elected. Traits necessary for election are not necessarily the ones best for governing.

Ignoring science is the nature of many people, because it is often more complicated. Many want all government problems to be simplified and solved by simple solutions, that they can understand. But it is often the “simple” solutions that create new problems.

Destructive human nature includes excesses in the areas of greed, racism, and revenge. These factors can lead to many kinds of destabilization and distraction from the real problems described above.

224. Why Do Many Doctors Ignore Vitamin C ?

20 Mar

EARLY RESEARCH WITH VIT. C WAS DONE WITH LOW DOSES
These early studies and other factors (see below) established a TRADITION of ignoring this vitamin. However, this research done many years ago did find small beneficial effects.

It is well known that most medical doctors ignore vitamins in helping people with disease. For example, if you listen to current medical scientists discussing covid-19, you see this is usually true. The most we get in this area is hints that immune system health is a factor in determining who will get infected by the virus.

In several of my BasicCauses.com blogs (209, 208, etc) I document scientific evidence (from Pubmed research and top clinic publications) indicating that Vitamin C and other supplements improve the immune system and have a definite effect on disease. Many years ago, double Nobel Prize winner Linus Pauling wrote a book (1976) on this subject, including the timing and large dosage of Vitamin C. My personal use of vitamin C and research on this subject began at that time.

To be most effective, a large dose of vit. C (e.g. 4 grams) at the VERY FIRST SIGN of “cold” symptoms, should be taken. High dosage should be continued, every couple of hours, if needed. There is no rigorous research study using this exact method, so it is only “likely”, but not proven. However, indirect and anecdotal evidence is overwhelming. I would add one more consideration. It may be that this method is substantially effective, only if there is a continuing healthy diet with vitamin supplements.

WHY IS THIS EVIDENCE AND VITAMIN PROCEDURE IGNORED.
Here are some of the factors. Maybe most important, is that a very healthy diet is expensive, and taking vitamin supplements is even more expensive. Many Americans can’t afford the expense, and many live in areas where more healthy foods are difficult to obtain.

There is a medical tradition, based on low dosages and ignored timing factors, that vitamin supplements have only minor if any effect on disease. It is also argued that supplements are not necessary if you have a healthy diet. However, I think it is safe to assume that for at least half the population, this is not true.

Another argument: almost all Vitamin C passes through the body and is eliminated, proving that none is utilized. One fallacy of this argument is that while in the body, it could be acting as a catalyst or as a pH regulator.

It is easier for doctors to support health using prescription drugs and vaccines, which they can control. The prescriptions help with monitoring so that encouragement can be provided.

Drug companies would not find it financially beneficial to explore and research this non-prescription method.

Often without an awareness, there is a bias because medical methods based on vitamins are less profitable. Individual doctors are mostly not responsible for this, as it is more a “community” medical problem and tradition.

On the positive side, vitamins in general are extremely safe and provide major generalhealth benefits.

Currently, covid-19 vaccines are becoming widely available, and this is a good thing. But until you get your shot, you could work on this healthy vitamin method (with more safety and POSITIVE side effects). And in the long run, the vitamin method could be more effective, because this virus has evolved other versions for which current vaccines may not be effective.

Final note: I enthusiastically support the use of vaccines. But there is likely a great benefit in generally improving the immune system with vitamins and healthy foods. And remember that most effective is an immediate large dose of vitamin C at the first sign of cold symptoms. There is no reason not to do both: vaccines and vitamins. Huge amounts of money have been spent on the vaccine program; what if a similar amount was spent on improving immune system health.

222. Current Virus Extreme

5 Jan

US Daily Cases over Past Year

Why is covid-19 now infecting at extremely high levels. Graphs of new cases, hospitalizations and deaths show great recent increases. Here are current US stats: number of cases: 21-million, deaths: 363-thousand.

In the US, covid-19 began infecting early in the year (2020). Immediate government action at that time could have prevented most of the further infections. Safety rules were quickly established, but there was little government encouragement to use them. In fact, there was discouragement by some leaders. Safety rules of cloth masks, social distancing, avoidance of groups, hand washing, etc. were found to be very effective.

A serious problem is that some of our US population is simply inclined not to follow rules. This is something that is almost impossible to change and will continue to hamper virus control.

The daily number of cases remained fairly low until October, when the weather turned colder. More outside activities were somewhat safer. Major holidays, like Thanksgiving and Christmas led to a lot of travel and group functions. There were also ill-advised political rallies, where supporters were packed together and few wore masks.

The recent, greatly increased virus levels were partially caused by the above factors, but there were other considerations. An important point is that as the virus spread, there were more sources of infection. Early on, very few people were infection sources, later there were many, so you were more likely to catch it later on. There is another related factor. Early in the virus period, many people found that they were safe even if safety rules were ignored. So many continued this neglect even when virus sources increased.

Some people tended to ignore safety rules, when vaccines were developed. They did not realize that actual vaccinations would take a long time to complete, and safety procedures must be continued.

The increased spread of the virus has another subtle negative effect. It is well established that covid viruses evolve and established cures and vaccinations could become ineffective. We may be living under virus restrictions for another year or more. On the other hand, with the encouragement of scientists, I think these scourges can be defeated.

221. Why Elect Biden and NOT Trump

2 Nov

For a number of years, I have been writing blogs about Trump. The election is tomorrow and I feel that I still might have some effect on voters that are undecided. The following is a brief discussion of my main points.

Most serious, Trump has a bad Covid-19 record. Starting with the main virus onset in April 2020, he has a consistently discouraged the use of masks and other safety measures. Medical scientists, such as Dr. Fauci have disagreed with Trump, and they have proven to be correct.

Scientists are 99% in agreement on climate change, but Trump ignores this. Briefly, the dangers are major floods, more serious hurricanes, droughts, and worse fires. These are already well documented. Also, 67% of Americans (Pew Survey) want to work on this problem.

Trump withdrew from the Iran Nuclear deal, promising a better deal. He could NOT make a better deal, and now there is less control over the Iran nuclear threat. His efforts regarding North Korea missiles, have failed.

Biden clearly wants to help the people, Trump clearly wants to favor himself and his rich friends. Look at Trump speeches. They are mostly about his needs, not the needs of the people.

Trump constantly lies. For example, he says Democrats want to increase taxes, but in fact, ONLY want to increase them for the very rich. He lies about this and many other things. He loves to brag about his successes, but the statements are mostly false. For example, he is NOT the greatest supporter of Black rights since President Lincoln — there is President LBJ, and others.

Repubs and Trump have claimed to have a health care plan, but after numerous promises over many years, there is no documented (written) plan. Repubs simply cannot agree on a plan, yet want to abolish Obamacare, which provides coverage for “pre-existing conditions” and many other rules helpful for people. Trump would take insurance coverage away from millions of citizens, and but for McCain, almost did.

Newspapers like the Wash, Post and NY-Times, and many others have many decades of reliable and honest reporting. Suddenly, when Trump arrives, they are all “fake” news? He started out with lies about Obama’s birth certificate, and exaggerated threats about immigration at our southern border. He lies about the dangers of covid-19, and is responsible for numerous deaths. Robert Woodward has published recordings of these lies.

Biden stands for reasonable and responsible government. Trump clearly wants to be the King, with total power. He has expressed his love for dictators and has undermined most of our policing and intelligence agencies. He caused our Post Office to be sabotaged, to help with his election. He appoints loyalists rather than experts in many areas. He uses the US Attorney General as his personal lawyer.

Trumps foreign policies are erratic and dangerous. Foreign leaders no longer trust him. Under Obama we had great relationships with other democratic countries. Trump has favored autocracies (dictatorships). His policies with regard to China were costly and ineffective, because he would not work as a team, with our allies. He has lied that foreign countries pay his tariffs, when they are actually paid by US importers, causing
increased prices for us. Because of our policy with China, we are now spending huge amounts of money to help devastated US farmers.

Trump was impeached. Many of his associates and staff are convicted criminals. His turnover of personnel is huge. Many past employees, and even his niece and sister, are highly critical. A Secretary of State (Tillerson) called him a “moron.” There is a huge list of traditional Republicans that have turned against him (example: George Will). A number of traditional apolitical organizations have decided to support Biden over Trump, example: Scientific American (magazine).

Biden, on the other hand, is incredibly experienced and reliable. He will hire the best experts and does not need loyalists, like Trump needs for protection. Biden will not govern by whim and tweets, but will work using a consensus of well qualified advisors. Trump has attacked scientists and others dedicated to truth. He has fired and limited the reports of government scientists.

Summary, Biden will provide our country with responsible leadership and care for the people (all of us). Trump will fail with the virus, international leadership, infrastructure, unbiased justice, world respect, survivable wages for workers, and in other ways.

220. Are the Newer Problems in the US, Unique?

17 Oct

When I think about the current problems facing the USA, it seems that they are worse than anything we have experienced in the past. I have been thinking a lot about this and here is my analysis.

Current Problems. I list three as most disturbing and involving large portions of the population. I fear that some current problems may be very long lasting.

The virus, covid-19 is unique for the modern world. In the past few decades, we have never had such a serious disease. It is highly infectious and has already killed 220,000 of our citizens, and many more world-wide. It has severely disrupted and damaged many lives.

Climate-Change. The current status is certainly a unique and a serious problem. Although we have known about this for decades, we had never in the past been so close to the point of no return, that is, where the effects become almost permanent. Scientists generally list the following more serious effects: floods, forest fires, worse hurricanes, and draughts. Many of these will cause mass migrations, which ultimately cause panic, riots, and maybe even wars.

President Trump is unique in US history. He has made 20,000 lies or extreme exaggerations, recorded by the Washington Post. To be brief, we can list: undermining US government agencies, takeover of the Dept. of Justice, calling 90 percent of our news media fake, ignoring and worsening the pandemic, alienating allies, threatening political rivals with arrest, and many other errors. He was impeached. (See my previous blogs).

Past US Problems. My list below is based on my personal impressions, having lived a long time. Others might make a different list.

Two world wars, WWI and WWII, come to mind. The second one ended in 1945. These were very serious and stand out in history. I could also mention Vietnam, Korea, Iraq, Afganistan, and Kuwait as important but lesser wars.

McCarthyism. According to Google: “a vociferous campaign against alleged communists in the US government and other institutions carried out under Senator Joseph McCarthy in the period 1950–54.” I was alive at that time and remember that for many outstanding citizens it was a disaster. It could be compared to “Trumpism,” which I think is far worse.

President Nixon. This president caused some serious national problems, but nothing compared to the Trump era. He was forced to resign for his role in the Watergate crime.

Epidemics in the Last 100 years. Here is a very complete list of world-wide epidemics: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_epidemics I lived through many of these diseases and nothing was as serious and wide-spread as the covid-19. Other serious diseases that stand out in my mind are: AIDs, Ebola, cholera, bubonic-plague, malaria, measles, and smallpox. Note: the bubonic plague has a long history and has recurred from time to time for many years — even in the last 20 years.

Conclusions. After writing the above, I still believe that the problems of today have had a more profound effect on our citizens than anything that happened in the past. The virus has affected all of us: deaths, masks, quarantines, isolations, restaurants closed, bankruptcies, evictions, limited travel, etc. Depending on your location, climate-change effects can be lethal and what is worse, will gradually become more disastrous. And Trump presents serious governmental problems, which have never been experienced in our entire US history. So to answer the question in my blog title, YES, the newer problems in the US, are unique. And if you have the courage to think about it, many of today’s problems could last for many years. But, here is a positive thought. I truly believe that all of our current problems have good solutions, but can only be solved by our most sincere and intelligent, global efforts.

216. Covid-19 and Outdoor Infection

4 Oct

About four days ago,  Trump had a White-House Rose Garden event introducing his Supreme Court nominee. This was attended by many top administration officials and other prominent people. Shortly afterwards, several attendees tested positive for the virus, including the President and his wife. Where they were infected, is still uncertain, but it could have been in the Rose Garden. Note, it is often assumed that because an event is held outside, it is safe.

However, just being OUTSIDE is not always SAFE. On the average, it is a little better than indoor events. But if people are close together and there is no wind, then virus droplets can spread dangerously. Even with distancing, if a small wind is in the right direction, DROPLETS COULD MOVE A FEW YARDS and cause infection. The basic rule is always: distancing PLUS wearing a good mask. To make good decisions, you must imagine people spewing out droplets, and where they might end up given the wind conditions. Trump was a good distance from his Rose Garden audience, but a mass of virus droplets could travel towards him if a small wind was blowing in his direction.

Officials concerned with impressions and election results, cannot be trusted to make good safety decisions. It is just a matter of common sense, and the rule, that if you are near others, anywhere, then good protective masks are needed. And those wearing masks, for greatest safety, should have masks that are protective for themselves, as well as for others. The President needs to encourage masks and not make fun of others that are following established safety rules. It also would be of great benefit, if our government developed inexpensive masks that protect the wearer, and distributed them in some way at low or no cost.

213. Re Virus: Expert Timely Action Was Needed

22 Sep

If our current president had acted early and thoughtfully, many lives lost to covid-19 could have been saved. Nations that worked very seriously on virus control had very few cases and deaths. Below, is a list of significant US actions and inactivity.  Our President was a businessman, with many business failures, and no government or medical experience.  How could he be expected to deal effectively with an extremely complicated issue like a major pandemic. 

The Global Health Security and Biodefense Unit was established by
President Obama in 2015 to deal effectively with problems such as viruses, like covid-19. Apparently, with little consultation and analysis, Trump abolished this unit. Just imagine how different our response to the danger could have been if this unit was in effect and Trump followed its recommendations. 

Trump failed to make early preparations for fighting this virus. Instead, he told everyone not to be concerned and the virus would soon be gone. The US could have been working on this problem early in January, instead, there were at least two months of  little activity. The only thing Trump did early, was to stop travel from China. If he had worked with experts, they would have discovered that travel from Europe was much more dangerous. Initially, New York was under very serious attack.

An effective US leader would have encouraged research and organized necessary supplies. We could have developed very effective methods, and we could have helped other countries in their use. It seems that Trump does not understand that helping others will also help the US.

IGNORING THE DANGERS.  From January 2020 to present (September) Trump has mostly minimized the dangers; presumably to make himself look better for the upcoming election. Journalist Bob Woodward presented to the public, tape recordings of his interviews with Trump. The recordings showed that he was very aware of the virus dangers, but “downplayed” them to avoid “panic.” An experienced leader would have concluded that it was much more important for the public to take the threat seriously, than to be concerned about panic. Trump stated numerous times that the virus will simply “disappear,” without any authoritative justification for this conclusion. He spoke of the development of a “herd mentality.” He actually meant “herd immunity,” which occurs when a high percentage of the population can no longer be infected.  Most experts believe that to quickly achieve herd immunity would result in too many deaths and so would be unacceptable.

FAILURE TO SUPPORT MASK USE AND DISTANCING.  With only a few exceptions, Trump has discouraged the use of face masks, social distancing, and avoidance of crowds. For a while, he was chiding people that wore masks. A responsible president would know that leadership and setting a good example is expected. Yet, for a long time, Trump would never wear a mask and often was too close to others. But what was more egregious, he held several large rallies where most were without masks, and people were crowded together.  Note that the Woodward tape recordings showed that Trump was aware of the airborne spread of this virus.

FAILURE TO PROVIDE EQUIPMENT.  Fighting a virus like covid involves the manufacture of massive amounts of equipment, including: advanced masks, hospital gowns, ventilators, etc. Trump refused to use the Defense Production Act, which could have forced the production of essential items. He could have organized the production of supplies, but instead said that governors would have to be responsible. It was several months before adequate equipment, such as PPE (personal protective equipment) was available. Meanwhile, doctors and nurses were being infected. 

RUSHING THE VACCINE.  Trump has often been in conflict with his medical experts, such as Anthony Fauci, MD. The experts say that it will take several more months before a vaccine is approved and that it will be at least six more months before it is generally available. Trump wants to rush the vaccine because it will help with his election. There are several problems with rushing.  The first is that it could take considerable testing time before harmful side effects are discovered. Safety has been a primary concern after the 1961 thalidomide tragedy, in which thousands of babies had birth defects or died. The second is that if the vaccine effectiveness does not reach a certain level (ranging between 50 and 70%), it is useless — and large quantities created at great expense would have to be destroyed. A third consideration, is that with all of the controversy associated with rushing approval, many folks will simply refuse to take it.

Early in the year I noted that medical experts estimated that it would take  at least a year or a year-and-a-half before a vaccine would be available. Current population of the US is 328 million.  At the assumed two-doses per person, this would require the manufacture, bottling, storage and application of about 500 million doses (some would not need it).  It is a huge project, and such projects usually take longer than expected because there are unanticipated difficulties. Developing virus testing methods will have similar problems. 

FINAL THOUGHT.  I am guessing that it will be two or three years before the virus will be at an insignificant level. The money spent in developing and applying vaccination and virus testing for most of the population will be colossal. We spend it, in order to save many lives, a worthwhile goal.  However, I fear that much of the money will be spent unwisely and wasted. Consider that many will refuse the vaccination and the virus testing. Both the vaccination and testing may have high error rates. Many will always refuse masks, distancing and washing. 

But I have had this thought, which may be way off base. What if we spent less money on the virus and used the savings for effective research and solutions to the climate-change dilemma, which also costs many lives, and in addition, the destruction of homes and property. My feeling is that we will waste huge amounts of money related to the virus, when more lives might be saved by increasing our efforts on the climate. As the years go by, the climate will be much more of a problem than the virus.

What do you think?

 

210. Trump Nationalism has a Negative Global Impact

18 Jun
.   .
The effects of Trump mismanagement are much larger than national. The US has a history of world leadership and influence, so many countries will suffer because of him. I have listed below some of the most serious errors. 
.
THE PANDEMIC
The Global Health Security and Biodefense Unit“ was established by
President Obama in 2015 to deal effectively with viruses, such as covid-19.
Without consulting with experts, Trump abolished this unit, and failed to make early preparations for fighting this virus. Instead, he told everyone not to be concerned and the virus would soon be gone. The US could have been working on this problem early in January, instead, there were at least two months of  little activity. The only thing Trump did early, was to stop travel from China. If he had worked with experts, they would have discovered that travel from Europe was much more dangerous. An effective US leader would have encouraged research and organized necessary supplies. We could have developed the most effective methods, and we could have helped other countries in their use. It seems that Trump does not understand that helping others will also help the US.
.
CLIMATE CHANGE
For many years, almost every scientist has supported the fact that the industrial revolution led to increases of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The global effect was and is to increase planet warming. Trump does not believe that this man-made warming has the serious effects of deaths caused by high temperatures, worse hurricanes, increased fires, and floods. Changes in rainfall are having effects on farming, so that many people will not have enough food to survive. We are already having more immigration due to starvation and this will only become worse — possibly leading to wars. Strong leadership by Trump, in this area, could have made a big difference.
.
.             Trump uses coercion; Obama used cooperation.
.
OTHER AREAS
Trump has assumed that our country can stand alone, and that we must run it like a business. He emphasizes the accumulation of wealth, and the economic defeat of all other countries. He has broken our beneficial alliances with other countries and attacked NATO. Even worse, he has supported Russia, N. Korea, and Turkey.  He caused many deaths of our allies, the Kurds, that helped us defeat ISIS.
Global trade policies have mostly been ineffective. We are spending many billions of dollars supporting our farmers because of failed policies.
Trump abandoned an international agreement with Iran, that was preventing the development of nuclear weapons. Iran (and also N. Korea) now threaten the entire world with their nuclear development.
The ultimate effect of Trump’s aberrant and inconsistent policies is a loss of worldwide respect and the abdication of world leadership. His frequent lying, crudeness, and lack of knowledge also has a negative international effect.
Just out. The Bolton book documents actions by Trump that have a negative international effect. His “deals” with certain other nations diminishes his ability to lead and constructively influence others. For a good list of  the book excerpts, see The Guardian, June 17, 2020, Max Benwell.
 

209. Immune System, Vit. C, and Viruses (With References)

26 May

Please see my previous Blog 208, for additional information and references.

.                          BASIC PHYSIOLOGICAL ARGUMENTS 

Most of the following logic is accepted by medical scientists, but in practice, is often ignored. The immune system is a host defense that protects against disease. The immune system is enhanced by good nutrition, and other health factors. Vitamin C, other vitamins, and some other nutrients provide this good nutrition. Variations in response to virus attacks are likely due to variations in immune systems. Many MD’s believe that vitamin supplements are not needed because they assume everyone has a healthy diet. Clearly, this is not true.  Exploring the use of Vit. C and other supplements for covid-19 should be encouraged.  

Here are some reasons why use of vitamins may be ignored Early studies used small doses of vitamins and they were ineffective. As a consequence many leaders discouraged vitamin supplements and tended to ignore further work. Many physicians prefer  prescription drugs because they can be better controlled, and were developed using rigorous experiments and established safety methods.

Experiments using the most rigorous scientific methods are almost impossible to do, in the area of vitamin effectiveness. For example, Vit C is most effective when the first “cold symptoms” are noticed, and several grams are taken immediately. The timing is somewhat vague and the reliability of patient compliance and reporting is questionable. Further, drug companies would not support this work and most researchers would not be interested. Federal support is controlled by medical experts and most of them would not be interested.

Often argued is that higher doses of Vit C and other vitamins are not absorbed by the body and are eliminated. This is not a good argument because the vitamins could be serving as catalysts (not consumened in chemical reactions). Vit C could have a positive effect on pH. Large concentrations of vitamins might be required to get enough into certain narrow end organs.

Another thought is that vitamin supplements are not necessary because a healthy diet contains all the necessary vitamins a person needs. Just saying this does not make it so — it takes a lot of experimentation to actualy prove this. A healthy diet might prevent some major diseases like scurvy, but the world has evolved a great many other disorders. Even more important, many, perhaps most people do not have a really “healthy diet,” and eat a lot of doughnuts, candy bars, sausages, white bread, lots of cheeseburgers — and very few vegetables.

To summarize, every profession has certain preferences that appeal to its members for a variety of reasons, some of which are valid and some maybe not.

                                           MY PROPOSALS

1. The CDC, AMA, or NIH, etc could publish some dietary information and encourage people to greatly improve their nutrition.
2. There could be some simple experiments such as the following. Randomly assign (blind) patients admitted to a hospital to an experimental (Vit C) and control group (placebo). As soon as they are admitted give them 3.0 grams of Vit C with lots of water. Then, every moring and night, prescribe 2 to 3 grams of Vit C (placebo for the control group). Record date of release, use of equipment like ventilaters, temperature, etc. Do this for a total of 100 or more patients and compare the groups. This is not ideal, but if there are significant effects, this could encourage wider application.
3. Researchers could apply for gov grants for more extensive rigorous studies.
4. Encourage private physicians to prescribe Vit C and other health factors and
record informally procedures and results. These could be published.
5. Eventhough there are no rigorous studies, physicians could still advise the use of nutritional factors, including Vit C. Most of the things we do in life are not “proven.” We simply gather all of the “relevant” facts, study them, and make a final decision. In this case, there is little if any risk. Good food and vitamins are very well established and safe. The major side effect is better health. The cost is comparatively small.

                        REFERENCES (with some summaries)

Listings below are by professional journal, newspaper, or Internet address, followed by brief quotations and/or relevant facts. (PMC = PubMed Central).

ROLE OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM AND HEALTH

The immune system is a host defense system that protects against disease. It has amazing protective functions implemented by tiny particles: indentifying, killing, remembering, and creating new attackers.

http://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/04/opinion/coronavirus-sweden-herd-immunity.html
Dr. Bremmer, Mr. Kupchan and Mr. Rosenstein are international political risk analysts. Re the virus: “The American people are far less healthy than Swedes.”
In other words, health is very important, yet our medical profession ignores this.
“Diabetes and hypertension, are two of the most-risky underlying conditions.”
Every type of disorder & age is correlated with infection risk, but instead, a third factor, a persons health, may be the underlying cause.

http://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/how-to-boost-your-immune-system.
Advised: eat a lot of vegs /fruits, don’t smoke, sleep well, lower stress, drink less alcohol.  As we age, our immune response capability becomes reduced, “people who live in poverty and are malnourished are more vulnerable to infectious diseases”

http://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/10/well/live/can-i-boost-my-immune-system.html
A healthful diet and exercise are important to maintaining a strong immune system.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6723551/ 2019
Childs, Calder, and Miles:  “Diet and Immune Function”
Adequate and appropriate nutrition is required for all cells to function optimally and this includes the cells in the immune system. Vitamin A and zinc regulate cell division and so are essential for a successful proliferative response within the immune system. Undernutrition is well understood to impair immune function.

VITAMIN C AND THE IMMUNE SYSTEM www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5707683/    Carr and Maggini
Vitamin C contributes to immune defense by supporting various cellular functions of both the innate and adaptive immune system.”

Mayo Clinic site: “Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a vitamin your body needs to form blood vessels, cartilage, muscle and collagen in bones. Vitamin C is also vital to your body’s healing process.” Large doses of vitamin C are “unlikely to be harmful.”

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7172861/ Boretti and Banik, Title: “Intravenous Vit C for reduction of cytokines storm in acute respiratory distress syndrome” Vit C was reported to have clinical activity against numerous other viruses including poliovirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, human lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and rabies virus in addition to demonstrating activity against influenza and herpes virus. (Refs listed.)

health.clevelandclinic.org/strengthen-your-immune-system-with-simple-strategies/
There are immune boosting foods: whole unprocessed foods are best.
“Vitamin C is known to boost immunity”
In one study, subjects increased ingestion of foods rich in vit. C “every day for a month.” They “had significant decrease in the severity and duration of upper respiratory infection symptoms”  Best diet: colorful fruits and vegetables. Also, lower stress, sleep well, and exercise.

WebMD: Vitamin C is required for the proper development and function of many parts of the body. It also plays an important role in maintaining proper immune function.

health.clevelandclinic.org/3-vitamins-best-boosting-immunity/
Three vitamins best; C, B6, E. Also hydrate (drink water)
“Vitamin C is one of the biggest immune system boosters of all.”

Nutrients. 2019 Apr; 11(4): 708  Harri Hemila.  Vitamin C Can Shorten the Length of Stay in the ICU: A Meta-Analysis.

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol 72, Issue 1, Jul 2000, pg 139
“These data suggest that men with low serum ascorbate concentrations may have an increased risk of mortality, probably because of an increased risk of dying from cancer.” The way Vit C may function in improving health, is discussed in detail.
(For non-scientists: “serum ascorbate” is Vit C in the blood.)

VITAMIN C AND VIRUSES (Summary, please see my Blog 208 for more details)

Book: Linus Pauling “Vitamin C and the Common Cold” 1970. Pauling won two Nobel prizes. References to scientific studies are listed and a method for viruses is presented.

Nutrients. 2017 Apr; 9(4): 339 H.Hemila “Vitamin C and Infections” (a review)
Vit C halved the number of colds in physically active people. Vit C shortened the duration of colds, in several studies (most used higher doses, such as 6 to 8 grams). Vit C prevented pneumonia in three controlled studies

Nutrients. 2017 Nov; 9(11): 1211. Carr and Maggini, “Vit C and Immune Function” Vit C appears able to both prevent and treat respiratory and systemic infections.

Med Sci Monit. 2014; 20: 725–732. Mikirova and Hunninghake.
Title: “Effect of high dose vitamin C on Epstein-Barr viral infection”
“High dose intravenous vitamin C therapy has a positive effect on disease duration”

WebMD   Vit C “is one of the safest and most effective nutrients.”
Quoting Mark Moyad, MD of University of Michigan:
“There is good evidence for taking vitamin C for colds and flu.” “It can reduce the risk of developing further complications such as pneumonia and lung infections.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7172861/ Boretti and Banik (see above)

SAFETY OF VITAMIN C

Drugs.Com has a long list of severe side-effects for Aspirin, which are much worse than those for Vit C.
Almost any substance will lead to reported side-effects, some of which are not actually valid. Vit C is natural, necessary for life, and safe for almost everyone.  Note: Take Vit C with plenty of water, and divide and space out large doses.

Example from WebMd
“In some people, vitamin C might cause nausea, vomiting, heartburn, stomach cramps, headache, and other side effects.”
“In people who have had a kidney stone, amounts greater than 1000 mg daily greatly increase the risk of kidney stone recurrence.” A reference for this was not given, and there are few if any such cases reported.

My conclusion:  Everything you ingest has a danger at some level and for some people. For example, in a hazing incident, someone was forced to drink a lot of water, and died from it. For 50 years, I have been taking large (several gram) doses of Vit C on occassions when I detected cold symptoms, and have never had any significant side-effects. The danger of covid-19 is ultimately lethal, while the danger of Vit C is in almost all cases, trivial. I have also studied the literature on Vit C for 50 years and have never seen an objective report of a serious side-effect, only unsupported dogma.

                              OTHER INFORMATION

For virus information from CDC:
http://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/summary.html

http://www.healthline.com/health-news/how-antibody-testing-can-help-us-fight-covid-19
It can take several days for the body to produce antibodies to a virus.

For more articles, search: “Vitamin C and viruses” or “Vitamin C and flu”

The Global Health Security and Biodefense Unit was established by
President Obama in 2015 to deal effectively with viruses, such as covid-19.
A future president abolished this unit. Some members just left, and some were transfered to other organizations